By the term fire protection devices we mean all kinds of fixed or semi-permanent devices, operated manually or automatically, responsible for detecting and fighting fires, as well as for neutralizing their effects. Fire-fighting devices are divided into:
- devices included in the voice alarm system and fire alarm system,
- signaling and alarm devices,
- fire alarm receiving devices and fault signal receiving devices,
- emergency lighting installations,
- hydrant valves,
- pumps in fire-fighting pumping stations,
- smoke exhaust devices,
- cut-off fire dampers.
When it comes to handheld firefighting equipment, its purpose is to extinguish a fire in the first stage of its creation. The handheld firefighting equipment includes:
The fireballs are covered on the outside with polystyrene, while their interior is filled with a powdered extinguishing agent, as well as a pyrotechnic charge used to disperse the extinguishing material contained inside, to a distance of at least five meters. The use of the ball is very simple and safe: the ball should be thrown into the fire, then the ball ignites thanks to its surface covered with a fuse, in the next step an explosion occurs and the place of fire is covered with extinguishing powder. The most important advantages of handheld firefighting equipment include, above all, ease of use, thanks to which these devices can be used by any adult person without the need for specialized training. All equipment should be equipped with an instruction manual.
Pursuant to the ordinance of the Minister of Interior and Administration of June 7, 2010 on fire protection of buildings, other structures and areas (Journal of Laws No. 109, item 719), fire-fighting devices, including portable and mobile fire extinguishers, should be subjected to technical inspections and maintenance activities at intervals determined by the manufacturer, but not less frequently than once a year. However, according to the three largest domestic producers of fire extinguishers and extinguishing units, the first inspection should take place within twelve months from the date of production, while the second inspection and each subsequent inspection should be carried out every six months. The period of inspection of the firefighting equipment may be shorter if the technical condition and firefighting effectiveness may deteriorate. Such situations most often occur in the chemical industry, maritime economy, mining, facilities with particular fire risk and unfavorable climatic conditions.
The inspection is a periodic inspection of the technical condition of devices, including fire extinguishers and extinguishing units. These tests are aimed at checking the technical efficiency of the devices, which will confirm their correct operation. An inseparable part of the inspection is maintenance, focusing on restoring the technical efficiency of fire protection devices without the need to repair them. When it comes to repair, it requires workshop measures to ensure that the handheld firefighting equipment is restored to service. The repair includes: disassembly and assembly of the equipment, replacement of the extinguishing agent, cleaning, painting and strength testing of the tank as well as marking.