Basic information about cranes

In the process of selecting the right crane, its intended use plays a key role. Cranes, colloquially called elevators, are a group of machines subject to technical supervision. Based on the functional features and restrictive technical barriers in design, resulting from concern for safety, they are covered by the provisions of the machinery and crane directive and many standards resulting from Polish law. Lifts are subject to national law in terms of operation. 

Directive 95/16 / EC of 29 June 1995 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to lifts was implemented into Polish law by the Regulation of the Minister of Economy of 8 December 2005 on essential requirements for lifts and their components security (Journal of Laws No. 263 of 2005, item 2198). 

Some of the provisions were changed by Directive 2006/42 / EC on machinery and the relevant Regulation of the Minister of Economy of November 5, 2008 (Journal of Laws No. 203 of 2008, item 1270). 

What are cranes - definition and division based on different division criteria 

Crane - is a device commonly referred to as an elevator or hoist, used to lift and move people, goods or loads in cabins or on special platforms moving on stiff guides inclined horizontally at an angle greater than 20 degrees. The crane is moved between the appropriate levels, also at high altitudes.  

As for the type of drive, the cranes are divided into 

  • Electric lifts - they have a characteristic structure, namely their ropes - also called belts - are threaded through the so-called friction wheel, with a cabin on one side and a counterweight on the other. The movement enables frictional coupling of the tendons with the wheel, which is driven by an electric motor or a reducer. 
  • Hydraulic crane - the specific structure helps to raise the cabin directly or indirectly thanks to the rope system with the appropriate ratio and the use of one or more actuators. 

Based on the intended use, the lifts are divided into classes according to the ISO standard: 

  • First class - lifts for residential and general use buildings, 
  • Second class - passenger and goods lifts, 
  • Third class - lifts designed for hospitals, nursing homes or health care. 
  • Fourth class - lifts designed for high-rise buildings and those with high traffic frequency. 

Based on the benefits of use and investment costs, the lifts are divided into: 

  • Lifts with a machine room, 
  • Lifts without a machine room. 

The most popular and most frequently used class of lifts is the third group. Which includes: 

  • Passenger lifts - these are devices designed for transporting people along a vertical line, with an electric or hydraulic drive. Transported people stay in a cabin that moves along rigid vertical guides. Passenger lifts allow for stopping on individual floors. 
  • Passenger and goods lifts - this is a type of lift, characterized by the fact that, in addition to the transported people, also the accompanying goods are transported. 
  • Goods lifts - these are specialized lifting devices that move on specific landing levels, not equipped with an internal cabin controller, due to their intended use it is forbidden to transport goods with people.  
  • Hospital lifts - these are specialized lifts designed to transport people, as well as hospital beds with or without patients. They are also used to transport medical equipment and hospital staff. Specialist features of this type of lift are, for example, privileges. It is worth mentioning that for the needs of the medical service, the minimum values of such parameters of the lift as lifting capacity: door width or cabin dimensions have been defined. 
  • Construction lifts - these are lifts designed for transporting people and loads, or just loads. The crane moves along rigid guides with the persons or goods being moved. The transported are in the cabin or on special platforms. 

Crane suppliers - characteristics 

The main suppliers of cranes to the Polish market are foreign producers; these are among others: 

  • Concerns operating on a global scale; offer cranes fully complete with assembly and service, 
  • Smaller companies, most often located in Germany, Spain, Greece and Italy, which also trade in complete cranes, some of them also provide servicing of these machines. These companies have various distribution channels, for example personal sales offices, as well as Polish representatives often operating under a different brand, 
  • Foreign suppliers of components - specialized companies that are famous for the mass production of lifting components. It happens that some of them recommend components from which the client can assemble a complete crane and then sell it as his product. 

Energy consumption of lifts 

A crane is a machine characterized by an intermittent operation mode in which energy consumption is influenced by many factors, including: intensity of use, average driving and stopping time, average lifting capacity or average cabin filling. Energy is absorbed by: reductant or gearless winch, lighting, door drive, inverter, emergency power supply, cabin, ventilation, cabin air conditioning, control. A key role is played by the division into energy used while driving and during standstill, i.e. standby, which is 18 - 23.5 hours. per day. In most cases, the energy consumption when stationary is greater than when driving. 

Adaptation to the transport of disabled people 

Requirements for the adaptation of lifts to the transport of disabled people are included in the Regulation of the Minister of Infrastructure on technical conditions that should be met by buildings. Adequate adaptation to all types of disability is widely discussed in the non-binding standard PN-EN 81-70: 2005.  

Operation during a fire 

The procedure to be followed in such a situation has been strictly defined in the PN-EN 81-73 legal standard. There are lifts that can be used by the fire brigade for evacuation purposes in accordance with the requirements specified in PN-EN 81-72.  

Resistance to vandalism 

Based on the PN-EN 81-71 legal standard, lift cabins with equipment, doors and control elements available to users must be constructed in a way that prevents damage by simple means. The problem is to ensure resistance to damage to the walls of the cabins and doors, which are most often subject to wear, abrasion and scratches. In this case, the best solution is to use stainless steel on the surfaces of the door and cabin walls. 

Acoustic requirements 

The permissible sound values in the elevator cabins and the engine room as well as the basic requirements for noise protection are regulated by the applicable legal standard PN-87 / B-02151 -01/02. It is important to properly select the power supply unit and cables, and to make the machine correctly. The applicable legal standard is met by virtually all hydraulic lifts, due to the fact that the actuators work quietly, while noise can reach the lift through the door. 

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