Risk analysis is a set of activities focused on reducing the negative impact of risk by taking appropriate actions that shape this risk. Through risk analysis, it is possible to identify, assess and monitor the level of risk on a quantitative and qualitative level.
Risk analysis has a particular application in the development of security management systems and security policy. Therefore, work in this area is very often carried out by specialists in the field of occupational health and safety.
In carrying out the risk analysis, various methodologies are used, which are adapted to the specifics of a given entity and the area of activities that generate the risk.
The most commonly used methodologies in risk analysis:
- HAZOP - threat analysis and operational capabilities
- ETA - event tree analysis
- FMEA - analysis of the types and effects of possible errors
- FTA - Fault Tree Analysis
- LOPA - analysis of security layers
- PHA - Initial Hazard Analysis
- QRA - Quantitative Risk Assessment
The most frequently used method in risk analysis is HAZOP (Hazard and Operability Studies), i.e. the analysis of threats and operational capabilities. It is based on the PN-IEC 61882 standard. It is often used in the design of new facilities and installations, modernization of facilities, installations and processes.
What is the HAZOP analysis?
The study starts with dividing the system into nodes (process units or unit operations) with specific parameters, for example, flow, temperature, pressure, level. Based on keywords such as "none", "less", "more", "also", "part of", "inverse", "other than", it is possible to interpret the deviations from the design assumptions.
The HAZOP analysis consists in considering all available combinations of the parameter and keywords and checking for possible deviations. For each deviation from the assumptions, the process of identifying the causes is carried out, the probability of a deviation and the related risks are assessed. Moreover, it is examined whether the used safeguards in terms of procedures and equipment are sufficient. The test results are recorded in the so-called HAZOP table.
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