Forklifts what they are for and where they are used Forklifts are highly specialized devices for the organization of handling (UTB). A wheeled motor vehicle with a motor drive. In the trade jargon, other words that are more commonly used (stacker) enter into use. It is mainly used for unloading goods in warehouses, ports, unloading, loading or factories. A platform, forks or other load lifting devices are attached to the forklift. The lifting capacity of some of them is even several dozen tons, so they can handle heavy loads perfectly. There are two types of forklifts:
- Combustion (petrol, LPG, diesel)
Most often, when the material is transported to the forklift, pallets are placed. It is suitable for lifting a palletized load. The height allows for the storage and retrieval of cargo, as well as for picking up and stacking in nests. All forklift trucks with a mechanical lifting drive are subject to technical inspection, while those which do not have a lifting mechanism are not subject to (lifting, pushing and pulling carriages).
Types of forklifts
are used outdoors because of the exhaust emissions they generate. There are situations in which they are used indoors, if they have special filters. They work perfectly on uneven surfaces, thanks to the four-wheel drive and solid wheels. One of their disadvantages is very high fuel consumption. Gas powered forklifts are appreciated for their versatility, as they emit less exhaust gas than gasoline and diesel engines. Providing adequate ventilation and observing safety rules, we can also use gas carts in confined spaces. The advantage of these trucks is the low noise level at work and low operating costs. Trucks of this type are powered by LPG, easy cylinder replacement is very simple and time-consuming, thus allowing for continuous operation without unnecessary stops.
Electric forklifts – Most often used in the interior and in high-bay warehouses. They have wheels that do not make the surface dirty, which is why they are perfect inside. Depending on the model of the stroller, they are available with four or three wheel drive. In narrow alleys and tight confined spaces, the latter are better suited because they are more manoeuvrable. It is precisely in these places that high precision is required of the operator. Working on an electric battery leaves little noise and emits no exhaust gases, compared to an internal combustion engine. A very good choice for people who value economical solutions with low operating costs, despite the high prices of battery trucks. On their weaknesses, electric forklifts are certainly not adapted to continuous operation, because the battery requires regular charging, which usually takes 4 to 8 hours.
We can recognize them by the operator's seat perpendicular to the direction of travel of the vehicle. They are characterized by a compact structure and small size, which allows them to move smoothly around the backrooms and narrow warehouses. These are electrical devices that enable the mast to be moved, rotated and raised by extending the mast. In the same way, the mast is moved towards the center of gravity of the device. Reach forklifts are light and can work in narrower working aisles, which makes them different from others. When putting away or removing pallets from storage racks, the device must be centered in front of the load, and the mast moves outwards, which makes it easier to maneuver. With some trolleys, we can lift the weight to a height of more than 10 m, at the highest levels we use auxiliary devices to facilitate maneuvers.
Intended for employees of warehouses, shops and wholesalers. It is used to move loads in difficult terrain conditions. They have an arm with a variable boom that allows carrying massive loads vertically and horizontally, and maneuvering them in space. Telescopic loaders they are not the cheapest and not very complicated. There is no problem for a specialized truck with a variable boom to cope with difficult conditions (eg at construction sites) thanks to the 4-wheel drive and off-road pneumatic tires. Most often we will meet this type of carts at construction sites, large households, and agriculture, where they use the greatest advantages. In connection with the operation and maintenance of these trucks, qualification certificates of the appropriate category - I WJO - are issued. For this type of UDT devices, it is necessary to perform an annual inspection and maintenance inspections every 30 days. Category I WJO qualifications allow for the operation of other lift trucks from the lower categories - II WJO (front and side lift trucks, as well as guided or remotely controlled trucks). To obtain the qualifications for the above-mentioned devices, it is necessary to take the UDT exam (or TDT or WDT)
Telescopic handlers - this is a lifting device. Also used as a crane, they are equipped with a telescopic boom that lifts loads (lifting capacity 1.5 - 21 tons) to a great height of 2 to 30 meters. The design allows you to work in confined spaces. Instead of forks for lifting heavy loads, we can use a crane with a hook or a lifting beam. Loads are lifted from above, not from below. The ability to quickly and easily set up the machine is for the construction industry. Available armaments:
- Buckets, forks, grippers, side grippers, rotators, augers, sweepers, concrete mixers, hydraulic hammers, baskets for lifting people, crane tips, etc .:
It is a great comfort and savings for people who need a universal machine. One person performs multiple functions (crane, drilling rig, forklift truck or mobile platform.
We must follow the basic rules when lifting a load:
- Check load balance
- Carefully lift the crane
- Hook the load to the base of the crane hook
- Provide sufficient stability when moving the load
Dangers when working with a telescopic handler:
- No protective clothing for the entire crew working near the machines
- No annual mandatory inspections of the Office of Technical Inspection
- No permanent and enforced health and safety rules
- No maintenance schedule for technical devices, including telescopic loaders
- Too high concentration of people on the construction site
- Infrastructure (communication node) or the lack of it most often.
To operate a forklift truck, it is necessary to have the appropriate qualifications and a positive result of psycho-technical tests. We can only obtain licenses in technical inspection units. We should remember about the equipped capacity diagram, which takes into account the lifting height of the load and its position of gravity on the forks. With the load raised, the truck is unstable and the center of gravity must be checked. We must remember about the necessary and regular inspection of lifting devices. The crane certificate is a legal requirement and the employer is obliged to provide his employees with the appropriate information. Each employee must undergo appropriate training before lifting loads before starting work with a telescopic handler or forklift trucks.