Overhead crane on the production floor

Overhead cranes - types, construction and application

What are cranes and where do we use them? 

Slag transport device

Overhead cranes are machines with which heavy loads can be moved both vertically and horizontally. These machines are used in shipyards, warehouses, workplaces and production halls. They are also used in the construction industry. They can be found at sites involved in the metallurgical, armament and shipbuilding industries.  

An overhead crane is one type of crane that works in intermittent motion. Its function is to lift and lower goods at a chosen location. It is needed when the hoists would not be able to lift the load and the crane would not fit in the building. Using them significantly reduces time and makes work easier, as they can be used both indoors and outdoors. 

An overhead crane consists of a superstructure, which is a bridge that travels on a running track, and a winch or hoist that travels on the crane bridge.  

We classify cranes according to different categories. 

A machine that is controlled from the ground


  • grab and gripper - designed to deliver loads using interchangeable grippers, 
  • stripper - designed to deliver ingots and extrude ingots from ingots, 
  • funneling - designed to deliver liquid metals and slag, 
  • forging - designed to supply the components of plastic working, 
  • batch - used to place the charge into the smelter furnaces, 
  • Magnetic - using a magnet to transport metal components, 
  • ticklers - designed for the transport of bulky items, 
  • bucket - designed to deliver bulk materials. 

Drive type: 

  • electrically powered cranes,  
  • air-powered cranes, 
  • cranes with hydraulic drive,  
  • manually operated cranes, 
  • mixed-propulsion cranes. 


  • remotely, 
  • from the cabin, 
  • remotely or from the cab, 
  • from the working level, 
  • remotely or from the working level. 


  • Gantry cranes - may consist of several gantries that move on wheels or rails. They are used outdoors, e.g. in shipyards, on railway sidings and at material depots; 
  • overhead travelling cranes - these are operated from the ground or from a cabin. They are used in production halls; 
  • Suspension cranes - are used to transport lighter loads. Due to their design, they take up little space and are therefore mounted under the roof structure. 

The most popular questions

What is a crane?

This is a machine used for vertical and horizontal material handling. It is used in industry and construction. It helps to transport large loads at a fast pace. 

What types of cranes are there?

Overhead cranes can be divided into different categories. The most common division is by: application, type of drive, control, design. 

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